Endometriosis is a common gynecological disorder in which tissue from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus) can be found in various parts of the body. The most frequent proliferation of endometrial tissue is observed in the genital area (genital endometriosis), as well as in other organs of the pelvis (extragenital endometriosis), such as the bladder, rectum and intestines, postoperative scars. In rare cases, extragenital endometriosis can also be observed in organs distant from the pelvis, such as the lungs and brain, eyes, etc.
Endometrial tissue reacts to hormonal changes in the female body during the menstrual cycle. During menstruation, the endometrium exfoliates from the wall of the uterus and is released to the outside with bleeding. A similar process that occurs outside the uterus leads to internal bleeding that does not have an outflow, which leads to the development of a local inflammatory process and, as a result, to the formation of adhesions. Sometimes a cyst occurs in the damaged area, called an endometrioma (“chocolate” cysts).
Endometriosis is one of the causes of female infertility and pelvic pain.
Laparoscopy is a modern method of surgery, in which operations on the internal genital organs are performed through small (usually 0.5-1.5 cm) openings on the anterior abdominal wall.
Laparoscopic approach is the most gentle method of surgical intervention, leading to rapid rehabilitation of patients, minimizing the likelihood of postoperative adhesions.
The operation on the pelvic organs is carried out from several small incisions, where special instruments are inserted. Previously, the abdominal cavity is filled with sterile gas, which allows the internal organs to move away from each other. The review is carried out using a video camera, which is also introduced into the abdominal cavity.
With the help of the introduced instruments, the surgeon removes, excises and electrocoagulates all foci of endometriosis, separates adhesions.
Through a special cannula, a colored solution is injected into the uterine cavity under pressure and the surgeon evaluates the patency of the fallopian tubes on the screen.
Planned intervention is not performed in clinically significant bleeding disorders, acute infections, decompensated somatic diseases (hypertension, unstable angina pectoris, severe diabetes mellitus, severe anemia).